Monday, March 23, 2020

Human Resource Management free essay sample

Human Resource Management (HRM) is the term used to describe formal systems devised for the management of people within an organization. These human resources responsibilities are generally divided into three major areas of management: staffing, employee compensation, and defining/designing work. Essentially, the purpose of HRM is to maximize the productivity of an organization by optimizing the effectiveness of its employees. This mandate is unlikely to change in any fundamental way, despite the ever-increasing pace of change in the business world. As Edward L. Gubman observed in the Journal of Business Strategy, the basic mission of human resources will always be to acquire, develop, and retain talent; align the workforce with the business; and be an excellent contributor to the business. Those three challenges will never change. Until fairly recently, an organizations human resources department was often consigned to lower rungs of the corporate hierarchy, despite the fact that its mandate is to replenish and nourish the companys work force, which is often cited—legitimately—as an organizations greatest resource. We will write a custom essay sample on Human Resource Management or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page But in recent years recognition of the importance of human resources management to a companys overall health has grown dramatically. This recognition of the importance of HRM extends to small businesses, for while they do not generally have the same volume of human resources requirements as do larger organizations, they too face personnel management issues that can have a decisive impact on business health. As Irving Burstiner commented in The Small Business Handbook, Hiring the right people—and training them well—can often mean the difference between scratching out the barest of livelihoods and steady business growth†¦. With technology changing every day, and the talent crunch forcing employers to get the most out of each and every staff member, the focus on HR is set to continue. Even without a time machine, it’s clear HR’s role will move ever-closer to the very heart of business. Plugging the talent gaps This is not to say there are no challenges facing HR in the present day, far from it. At the top of the critical list on Singapore’s business landscape is the impending talent shortage that is set to hit organisations of all shapes and sizes. Elizabeth Martin-Chua, local HR expert and author, says businesses are again having to chase talent. Previously, the situation was the much more ideal reverse – with job candidates pulling out all stops to find work in their favoured organisations. Now, with the baby boom generation set to move into retirement with only smaller-sized age groups available to replace them, the talent crunch is set to move into a more permanent fixture. That means renewed importance will be placed on those HR Human Resource Management free essay sample This approach helps the employees to be committed to their work which contributes to the overall performance of the organisation as a whole. Table of contents 1. 0 Introduction3 1. 1 Part A: Comparative analysis of hard and soft philosophies of HRM 3 1. 2. 1 Advantages and disadvantages of the soft and hard approaches to HRM4 1. 3 Justification of the soft approach5 1. 4 Part B: Five soft approaches used by Toyota5 2. 0 Harvard model of HRM 6 2. 1. 1 Towards defining HRM7 2. 1. HRM theories8 2. 2 HRM strategies9 2. 3. 1 Continuous improvement and respect for people 10 2. 3. 2 Effective teamwork10 3. 0 References11 1. 0 Introduction The origins of our efforts to manage people lie in the way we view others and make judgement about them (Hall, 1988). For Hall (1988), the philosophies of human resources management (HRM) are those assumptions about people and the workplace and their abilities and needs and these form the foundation of managerial actions. From this assertion, it can be noted that there are mainly two philosophies namely the ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to HRM which are applied by different organisations. We will write a custom essay sample on Human Resource Management or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As such, this paper seeks to provide a comparative analysis of the soft and hard philosophies of HRM as used in American and Japanese corporations. The main discussion is based on the given case of Toyota. The paper starts by outlining the differences between these two philosophies and it attempts to highlight the advantages as well as disadvantages of each philosophy. The second part of the paper will focus on the concept of HRM applied at Toyota. 1. 1Part A Comparative analysis of the hard and soft philosophies of HRM The main difference between soft and hard philosophies of HRM is that the soft approach is employee oriented where there is a balance between work and their interests while the hard approach is performance based where organisational productivity is given priority. The other difference between the two is related to the structure of the organisation which has a bearing on the HR functions. A soft approach can be applied to an organisation with a flat structure like Toyota while a hard approach is applicable to organisations with tall structures. In an organisation where a soft approach is applied, employees can contribute towards the decision making process while in a hard approach they are not involved. The other notable difference between the two is that teamwork is encouraged in an organisation which encompasses the soft approach while the one with a hard approach emphasises the element of increased performance. The other difference is that the soft approach encourages innovation while the hard approach inhibits innovation. Table 1 Differences between soft and hard approaches to HRM Soft approachHard approach Employee orientedProduction/performance centred Suitable in flat organisation structureIdeal for tall organisation structures Involvement in decision makingEmployees not involved in decision making Teamwork is encouragedTeamwork is not promoted Innovation is promoted Does not promote innovation 1. 2. 1Advantages and disadvantages of soft philosophies of HRM AdvantagesDisadvantages Workers are motivatedThe organisation can lose money pleasing employees. There is consensus in decision making Some of the ideas may not be incorporated in the decisions A sense of belonging is createdEmployees may see themselves too powerful Tasks are decentralised to other departmentsMay be challenging to follow the same strategic goals Development of skills encouragedEmployees may desert the organisation after gaining experience 1. 2. 2Advantages and disadvantages of hard philosophies of HRM AdvantagesDisadvantages Production is increasedWorkers are not satisfied with their job Effective decision making Employees may not like the decisions The leaders know what is good for the companyDisgruntled employees Focus is on productionPoor performance of the organisation Helps to keep the system of the company in tactEmployees may not be able to keep pace with the changes in the environment 1. 3Justification of the soft approach The soft approach used by Toyota is commendable given that it is mainly concerned by the welfare and needs of the employees. This helps to motivate them such that they put optimum effort in their performance which is an added advantage to the company as a whole. The other reason is that the employees are satisfied with their job and it is easier for the organisation to retain talent. The other advantage is that continuous improvement of the employee skills helps them to keep pace with the changes that may take place in the environment. Knowledge management is a virtue during the contemporary period given that there is need for the employees to be better positioned to find solutions to the problems they may encounter in their operations. . 4Part B: Five soft HRM practices There are more benefits than costs of the soft approach taken by Toyota as going to be explained in detail below. Team work is promoted at Toyota and this is a very important aspect in the operations of any organisation. It promotes the creation of new ideas which can positively contribute to the overall performance of the organisation. Re spect for people is another good approach used at Toyota where the employees are treated as valuable assets to the organisation as a whole. Conflicts which can be counterproductive are minimised. Creativity and innovation are also encouraged and this approach is very good given that the knowledge of the employees is constantly developed. The organisation is in a position to operate viable which can also contribute to its productivity. The other soft approach is stable employment which makes it easier for Toyota to retain talented and skilled workers. The organisation does not waste money through constant recruitment of employees. The other approach is increased support for balancing work with childcare. This improves employee commitment to the organisation which makes them productive. Their satisfaction with the job is also improved. However, this can be costly to the organisation given that it may be paying people who are not productive while attending to their children. However, teamwork, respect for people as well as creativity and innovation are very important during the current period. Workers are developed to the extent that they can keep pace with the constant changes taking place in the environment. 2. 0 Harvard Model of HRM According to information obtained from the following website , (2011), the Harvard Model of HRM is â€Å"based on an analytical approach and provides a broad causal depiction of the determinants and consequences of HRM policies. † From this assertion, it can be noted that the HR policies are influenced by situational factors that are either within the organisation or in the external environment. These factors ought to be taken into consideration in order to enhance the effectiveness of the organisation in the long run. This model tries to map the factors that can be taken into consideration with regards to employee effectiveness. This model can be illustrated diagrammatically as shown below. Secondary source: . 2. 1. 1Towards defining HRM HRM is a system of philosophies, policies, programmes, practices and decisions that affect the attitude, behaviour and performance of the organisation so that they are satisfied, perform and contribute to the organisation towards the achievement of its goals (Amos et al, 2008). As can be noted in the case of Toyota, the organisation has put measures in place hat are meant to ensure that the interests of the employees are given priority so that they can put optimum effort in their performance. HRM can also be simply defined as the process of dealing with the issues related to human capital such as recruitment, training and development, addressing the employees’ grievances as well motivating the staff among other factors (Robbins, 1993). 2. 1. 2 Goals of HRM This is a twofold process where there is need to fulfil the needs of the employees while at the same time addressing the needs of the organisation in a balanced way. These two aspects are interrelated hence one should not be compromised for the benefit of the other as can be noted in the case of Toyota. 2. 1. 3 HRM theories Douglass McGregor (1960) proposed that managers have personal theories regarding the nature of people at work which become the cornerstone of management of their behaviour (Robbins, 1993). He proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labelled Theory X and the other basically positive Theory Y. Theory X Under Theory X, the assumption is that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility and must be coerced to perform (Robbins, 1993). This theory suggests that people ought to be threatened with punishment in order to achieve the organisational goals. This approach is usually taken by managers who are more concerned with performance of the employees as well as productivity of the organisation as a whole. This theory is characteristic of the hard approach to HRM where there is little concern for the welfare of the employees since priority is given to the productivity of the organisation. This theory is not applicable to the case of Toyota. Theory Y In contrast to the negative views of human nature, McGregor assumes that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility and can exercise self-direction (Robbins, 1993). If the people are committed to the objectives, they can have self direction and control and this approach is based on the soft philosophy of HRM. This approach is employee oriented given that there are measures in place that are meant to satisfy the needs and interests of the employees. This is the approach taken by Toyota whose operations are guided by two pillars namely: continuous improvement and respect for people. This emanates for the belief that people can put optimum effort in their operations if they are treated like valuable assets to the organisation. Contingency approach This approach also forms the theoretical perspective of HRM in that it suggests that leadership behaviour is subject to the situation in which the leader and follower find themselves in (Amost et al, 2008). The aspect of behaviour is prioritised since it characterises the nature of the human being. Likewise, the behaviour of the people is shape by various factors hence there is need for the HRM to take into consideration these factors in order to contribute meaningfully to the operations of the organisation. 2. 2 HRM strategies In brief, a strategy is a long term decision that is meant to improve the competitiveness of the organisation through adding value to its operations (Werner, 2005). Toyota seeks to create sustained competitive advantage through adding measurable value to the organisation by virtue of prioritising the needs of the employees. The two HRM strategies used by Toyota include the following: respect for people and effective team work. 2. 3 1 Continuous improvement and respect for people: There is a strong belief at Toyota that the employees are the organisation’s most valuable assets. If the needs of the people are met, they are also likely to be satisfied which motivates them to put optimum effort in their performance. This is the driving philosophy behind the organisation’s soft approach to its HRM processes. 2. 3. Effective teamwork and individual efforts: This is another strategy used by Toyota where teamwork is promoted in order to enhance the effectiveness of the organisation. Through teamwork, knowledge is easily generated and shared among the employees and this is very important in the performance of the organisation as a whole given that the employees are better positioned to keep pace with the changes obtaining in the environment through constant development of their skills and competenc ies from the knowledge they gain from the other employees. All hese strategies are supported by good communication within the organisation. Over and above, it can be noted that the soft and hard philosophies of HRM are applied to organisations in varying contexts given that these oppose each other. As noted, Toyota uses the soft approach in its operations with regards to human resources management. As discussed above, the advantages of this strategy outweigh the disadvantages hence it is recommendable for Toyota to keep this strategy since it significantly contributes towards the overall performance of the organisation as a whole. 3. References Amos, TL et al 2008, Human Resources Management, 3rd Edition, JUTA, CT. Grobler, P Et al 2006, Human Resource Management, 3rd Edition, Thompson Learning, London. Hall, J 1988, Managerial philosophy: The cornerstone of managerial competence, Woodstead Press, Woodlands. Harvard Model of HRM, 12 November, 2011, viewed 12 November, 2011, . The Harvard Map of HRM, 2008, Viewed 12 November, 2011, . Robbins, SP 1993, Organisational behaviour: Concepts, controversies and applications. 6th Edition. Prentice Hall, NJ. Werner, H et al 2003, Organisational behaviour, Van Shaik Publishers, Pretoria. Human Resource Management free essay sample In this case, the company simply has to commit to the task if they want to avoid unqualified interviewees. The second method is to try to plan the company’s hiring beforehand. Instead of advertising vacant positions to the whole supply of labor, the company can choose to hire from more â€Å"elite† sources. For example, the company can choose applicants exclusively from internal employees or referrals from current employees. In the former case the company already knows the applicants’ abilities; and in the latter case since current employees know first-hand what is needed in applicants their referrals will be at least better than average. Certainly there are some minor problems that needed to be solved but similar to the first method, the company just needs to weight the pros and cons and then commit to the plan. Above are two methods that can be of help to improve the quality of applicants. We will write a custom essay sample on Human Resource Management or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is inevitable that these methods are not without flaws; but if the company truly wants to relief interviewers of unqualified interviewees then they will find these methods perfectly implementable. Human resource management free essay sample Bachelor of Science (Singapore) HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: STRATEGY AND POLICY (HRM2001S) STUDY GUIDE BSc20 FT / Singapore Copyright August 2013 1 Author: Dipan K Mehta (2013) This manual was prepared for University College Dublin as a comprehensive support for students completing the above mentioned Degree programme.  © This publication may not be reproduced, in whole or in part without permission from University College Dublin. Module Co-ordinator: Dipan K Mehta Email: dipan. [emailprotected] com 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE WELCOME MESSAGE 4 1. INTRODUCTION 5 a. Background details b. Module aims c. Programme Goals 2. MODULE OUTLINE a. Module learning outcomes b. Themes and topics c. Learning materials 3. MODULE DELIVERY SCHEDULE a. Session arrangements b. Student engagement c. Office hours arrangements 4. ASSESSMENT DETAILS a. Assignments b. Module assessment components i. Assignment 1 ii. Assignment 2: Individual Project iii. Examination 5. GRADING a. University grading policy b. Grade descriptors for assessment components 6 6 8 9 9 10 14 24 24 26 26 27 27 26 26 29 30 31 31 32 6. CONCLUDING COMMENTS 35 APPENDICES 36 3 WELCOME MESSAGE There are several purposes of studying HRM. We will write a custom essay sample on Human resource management or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Human resource strategies are frequently seen as the key to the achievement of business objectives, to keep the companies competitive. The complex and rapidly changing environment have produced a sense of turbulence and uncertainty in business life. The adaptability of organisations has never been more important. The way the human resource is used strategically to achieve business or organisational objectives is the focus of this module. Business or organisational strategy may be described as the attempt to find ways to position the business or organisational objectives. This is achieved through maximising the present and future use of the organisation’s capital and human assets. The aim of the course is to provide students with an appreciation of the human resource management function so that they can understand the interaction between HRM and the business strategy. Should you require clarification on any matter pertaining to the module, please do not hesitate to contact me. Dipan K Mehta Module coordinator 4 PART 1: INTRODUCTION This Study Guide is designed to provide you with details of this module, the learning outcomes, delivery and assessment arrangements. The Study Guide consists of 6 parts. Part 1 gives background details to the subject area are provided and the broad aims of the module are set out. Part 2 consists of the module outline. In this part the (a) module learning outcomes, (b) the themes and topics to be explored are explained along with the (c) learning supports to be used. Part 3 gives details of the module delivery arrangements. It sets out the session arrangements and the expectations in relation to your prior preparation and student engagement. Part 4 provides details of the assessment techniques used in this module explaining the assessment components, their rationale. Part 5 explains the UCD grading policy and grade descriptors drawing on the university document are given for each assessment component (i) Assignment 1, (ii) Assignment 2 and (iii) Examination (closed book). Part 6 presents the concluding comments. 5 Background Details a. Background to the Topic This module will provide students with an introduction to the management of human resources. Among the areas covered are: ? human resource management (HRM) in context; ? human resource management and how it can be distinguished from traditional personnel management; ? the flexibility debate; ? human resource planning; ? recruitment and selection; ? reward and performance management; ? the management of change and communication and topical issues in HRM including human resource management in small businesses and strategies for retaining staff. The module provides for the blending of its theory and practice contents with the collective workplace experiences of the participants. To this end participants will be expected to contribute critical reflection on their workplace experiences along with collaborative interpretation of such experiences in both classroom and study group settings. Advance preparation for classes and workshops will be an important feature, with readings and questions for reflection assigned at the commencement of the semester. b. Module Aims The aim of this module is to provide students with an overview of the theory and practice of Human Resource Management. This module focuses on a strategic perspective wherein the HRM function supports an organisation’s business strategy with appropriate HRM policies and practices. The module draws on student prior learning and work experience and combines insights from strategy, international trade and investment theory, human resource management and other areas. The assessments in the form or written assignments and examination will cover the entire holistic perspective of human resource management. 6 Module Aims Human Resource Management is specifically designed to provide students with a sound theoretical and practical knowledge of all the key business-related areas in human resource management. This Programme equips students with the skills to apply scientifically-based techniques to work-related problems. Students learn to apply skills in human resource management, people soft skills, employee relations, international management, business strategy and human behaviour. This module also surveys the concepts and practices in the major functions of human resource management. Topics include human resource forecasting, human rights, recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisal and compensation, job analysis, work conditions ergonomics, employee safety and health, labour relations, international aspects of HRM. The course attempts to provide an insight into managing employees in general and as an overall management philosophy and also as a functional area of management in the new legal, financial, social and managerial systems. The module will also examine the influence of international organisations and international arrangements in particular countries and on the employment practices of multinationals. The module will give particular attention to the practice of human resource management in international companies, and the challenges facing such companies in managing human resources across national borders. The assessment tasks for this module have been designed with this in mind as detailed later in the study guide. 7 Programme Goals Programme Title: Bachelor of Science Singapore (HRM2001S) Programme Goals Programme Goal Learning Outcome HRMSP Management specific knowledge Explain current theory/practice in HRM X Apply business models and steps stages of HRM practices X Demonstrate knowledge of and the usefulness of quantitative techniques and controls in HRM Business Communication Short business presentation (written / oral) Research and analyse specific HRM case studies / problems / topics and write a concise report detailing the findings and recommended actions X Locate information sources to facilitate the completion of research on HRM practices. X Personal development / reflective learning Engage in module-related team activities within and outside class X Explain the essence of organization behaviour pertinent to business managers and how they may apply in the workplace environment X Global / multi cultural / diversity perspectives Identify the main factors and variables that influence multinational entities’ business operations in HRM X Recognize ethical and social responsibility issues that affect and impact HRM X Examine ethical and legal implications of managerial decisions and their effect HRM X Strategic thinking Identify business opportunities/problems and develop alternative solutions, taking account of possible consequences (intended or unintended) Evaluate qualitative and quantitative data from multiple perspectives paying attention to HRM issues Analyze developments in key business sectors and comment critically on a firm operating in the sector X 8 PART 2: MODULE OUTLINE Module Title: Human Resource Management: Strategy and Policy Module Code: HRM2001S No. of ECTS: 10 Module Learning Outcomes On completing this module, students will be expected to be able to: i. Demonstrate an ability to critically discuss contents of the module and illustrate how the course concepts are applicable in the workplace. ii. Discuss the concept of HRM and how it differs from previous methods of managing employees. iii. Demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the challenges and responsibilities associated with human resource planning, recruitment and selection; reward systems and performance management. iv. Evaluate the interaction between HRM and the business strategy. v. Evaluate the interaction between HRM and the management of change. vi. Predict likely future developments and trends in the field of human resource management. Module Text: Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. R. A. Noe, J. R. Hollenbeck, B. Gerhart P. M. Wright, (2014). 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, N. Y. Other References Fundamentals of Human Resource Management: Gary Dessler (2011). 2ndEdition. Pearson Higher Education. Human Resource Management. R. J. Stone, (2008). 7th edition, John Wiley Sons Australia, Queensland. 9 Themes and Topics Topic 1: Managing Human Resources 1. â€Å"It’s got to start with people! † Human Resource Management is more than pencilpushing and payroll—it can make or break the success of a company! 2. Human Resource Management (HRM) means the policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behaviour, attitudes, and performance. 3. Managers and economists have traditionally seen HRM as an expense, rather than a source of value. Economic value is usually associated with capital such as cash, equipment, technology, and facilities. 4. Human Resource Management, however, can be valuable! Decisions about whom to hire, what to pay, what training to offer, and how to evaluate employee performance directly affects employees’ motivation and ability to provide goods and services that customers value. Topic 2: Trends in Human Resource Management 1. The early years of the 21st century have shaken the complacency of U. S. workers and forced them to take a fresh look at the ways they are working. 2. More than ever, organizations today must be able to respond creatively to uncertainty and change. 3. A few examples of the types of changes occurring in the workplace are presented. These changes are requiring adaptability from both the employer and the employee. 4. The creative responses to change and uncertainty presented help to illustrate the kinds of people and situations that are currently shaping the nature of human resource management today. Topic 3: Providing Equal Opportunity and a Safe Workplace 1. In the U. S. , the federal government has set some limits on how an organization can practice human resource management. 2. In Singapore, MOM (Ministry of Manpower) has guidelines that all business must adhere to, based on managing human resources. Also, TAFEP (Tripartite Alliance of Fair Employment Practices) have formulated best practices for managing human resources of which employers are encouraged to follow. 3. Among these limits are requirements intended to prevent discrimination in hiring and employment practices and to protect the health and safety of workers while they are on the job. 4. A company that skilfully navigates the maze of regulations can gain an advantage over its competition. Topic 4: Analyzing Work and Designing Jobs 1. Key elements and their consideration are at the heart of analysing work. 2. Through the process of work flow design, managers analyse the tasks needed to produce a product or service. 3. A job is a set of related duties. 4. A position is the set of duties performed by one person. 10 Topic 5: Planning for and Recruiting Human Resources 1. With a bigger workforce, an established company needs more creativity to avoid layoffs. 2. Trends and events that affect the economy also create opportunities and problems in obtaining human resources. 3. To prepare for and respond to these challenges, organizations engage in human resource planning, defined as identifying the numbers and types of employees the organization will require to meet its objectives. Topic 6: Selecting Employees and Placing Them in Jobs 1. Hiring decisions are about finding the people who will be a good fit with the job and the organization. 2. An organization’s decisions about selecting personnel are central to its ability to survive, adapt, and grow. 3. Selection decisions become especially critical when organizations face tight labour markets or must compete for talent with other organizations in the same industry. Topic 7: Training Employees 1. Training consists of an organization’s planned efforts to help employees learn jobrelated knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviours, with the goal of applying these on the job. 2. A training program may range from formal classes to one-on-one mentoring and it may take place on the job or at remote locations. 3. No matter what its form, training can benefit the organization when it is linked to organizational needs and when it motivates employees. Topic 8: Managing Employees’ Performance 1. Performance management is the process through which managers ensure that employees’ activities and outputs contribute to the organization’s goals. 2. The process of performance management requires knowing what activities and outputs are desired, observing whether they occur, and providing feedback to help employees meet expectations. 3. In the course of providing feedback, managers and employees may identify performance problems and establish ways to resolve those problems. Topic 9: Developing Employees for Future Success 1. Employee development is the combination of formal education, job experience, relationships, and assessment of personality and abilities to help employees prepare for the future of their careers. 2. Human resource management establishes a process for employee development that prepares employees to help the organization meet its goals 3. Organizations and their employees must constantly expand their knowledge, skills, and behaviours to meet customer needs and compete in today’s demanding and rapidly changing business environment 11 Topic 10: Separating and Retaining Employees 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Research indicates that retaining employees helps retain customers and investors. Organizations with low turnover and satisfied employees tend to perform better. Employee turnover refers to employees leaving the organization. Involuntary turnover occurs when the organization initiates the turnover. Many organizations use the word terminated to refer only to a discharge related to a discipline problem, but some organizations call any involuntary turnover a termination. 6. When the employee initiates the turnover, it is voluntary turnover. Topic 11: Establishing a Pay Structure 1. From the employer’s point of view, pay is a powerful tool for meeting the organization’s goals. 2. Pay has a large impact on the organization such as: a. Affects employee attitudes and behaviours b. Influences which kinds of employees are attracted to and retained by the organization c. Can align employees’ interests with organizational goals d. Viewed as a sign of status and success 3. Pay is a major cost to organizations. Across all industries, pay averages almost onefourth of a company’s revenues. Topic 12: Providing Employee Benefits 1. As part of the total compensation paid to employees, benefits serve functions similar to pay. Benefits contribute to attracting, retaining, and motivating employees. 2. Different employees look for different types of benefits. 3. Employers need to examine their benefits package regularly to see whether they meet the needs of today. 4. Employers need to communicate effectively so that the benefits succeed in motivating employees. 5. Employees have come to expect that benefits will help them maintain economic security. 6. Even though many kinds of benefits are not required by law, they have become so common that today’s employees expect them. 7. Like other forms of compensation, benefits impose significant costs. On average, out of every dollar spent on compensation, 30 cents or more go to benefits. 12 Topic 13: Managing Human Resources Globally 1. The environment in which organizations operate is rapidly becoming globalized. 2. Factors behind the trend toward expansion into global markets include: a. Foreign countries can provide a business with new markets in which there are millions or billions of new customers b. Companies can set up overseas operations and operate them with lower labour costs c. Thanks to advances in telecommunications and information technology, companies can more easily spread work around the globe, wherever they find the right mix of labour costs and abilities. d. Global activities are simplified and encouraged by trade agreements among nations 3. The various demands of international activities require managers to understand HRM principles and practices in global markets Topic 14: Creating and Maintaining High-Performance Organizations 1. High-performance work systems – the combination of people, technology, and organizational structure that makes full use of the organization’s resources and opportunities in achieving its goals. 2. To function as a high-performance work system, an organization needs the right people, technology, and structure. 3. According to research, organizations that introduce high-performance work practices usually experience increases in productivity and long-term financial performance. 4. Creating a high-performance work system contrast with traditional management practices. Recently, managers have realized that success depends on how well the elements work together rather than considering the elements as separate, unrelated items 13 Learning Materials For this module, please read the assigned chapters in the prescribed text and the additional readings assigned (see list below). TOPIC 1 Objectives Synopsis of Topic Managing Human Resources 1. Define human resource management and explain how HRM contributes to organization’s performance. 2. Identify the responsibilities of human resource departments. 3. Summarize the types of skills needed for human resource management. 4. Explain the role of supervisors in human resource management 5. Discuss ethical issues in human resource management 6. Describe typical careers in human resource management This introductory chapter provides students with foundations of Human Resource Management. Human Resource Management (HRM) means the policies, practices, and systems the influence employees’ behaviour, attitudes and performance. This chapter discusses the practices of HRM which include the analysis and design of work, recruiting, selection, training and development, performance management, compensation, employee relations, and strategic support for organizational strategy. HRM does not exist in a vacuum; it should be integrated into all strata of the organization. This chapter discusses a variety of internal and external considerations of HRM, including the responsibilities of an HRM Department, the skills of HRM professionals, and the ethics of HRM. Assigned Reading/ Exercises Case Study and Videos Discuss Review Questions. Questions Nos. 1, 2, and 3 (Noe, et al. , 2014, p. 21) TOPIC2 Trends in Human Resource Management Objectives Video – Creative Corporation 1. Describe trends in the labour force composition and how they affect human resource management. 2. Summarize areas in which human resource management can support the goal of creating a high-performance work system. 3. Define employee empowerment and explain its role in the modern organization. 4. Identify ways HR professionals can support organizational strategies for quality, growth, and efficiency. 5. Summarize ways in which human resource management can support organizations expanding internationally. 6. Discuss how technological developments are affecting human resource management. 7. Explain how the nature of the employment relationship is changing. 14 8. Discuss how the need for flexibility affects human resource management. Synopsis of Topic This chapter provides students with knowledge of the environment of Human Resource Management. This chapter will present trends in the labour force and it will explain the internal labour force (an organization’s workers) and the external labour market (individuals who are actively seeking employment). Students will read about how the workforce is becoming older and increasingly diverse. Students will acquire an understanding of skill deficiencies in the workforce and they will learn how HRM can address those deficiencies. The chapter will discuss how HRM can help organizations become highperforming, and the benefits of empowering employees. HRM is a strategic partner during other changes that are occurring in the business environment, including mergers and acquisitions, and technological changes. Lastly, the chapter will present the change in the employment relationship, where organizations expect employees to take more responsibility for their own careers, from seeking training to balancing work and family. Employees, in turn, seek flexible work schedules, comfortable working conditions, control over how they accomplish their work, training and development opportunities, and financial incentives based on corporate performance. Assigned Reading/ Exercises Case Study and Videos Discuss Review Questions. Questions Nos. 1, 3 and 4 (Noe, et al. , 2014, p. 51) TOPIC3 Providing Equal Opportunity and a Safe Workplace Objectives Case Study, See Topic 02 Video – Hotjobs. com 1. Explain how the three branches of government regulate human resource management. 2. Summarize the major federal laws requiring equal employment opportunity. 3. Identify the federal agencies that enforce equal employment opportunity and describe the role of each. 4. Describe ways employers can avoid illegal discrimination and provide reasonable accommodation. 5. Define sexual harassment and tell how employers can eliminate or minimize it. 6. Explain employers’ duties under the Occupational Safety and Health Act. 7. Describe the role of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 8. Discuss ways employers promote worker safety and health. Synopsis of Topic This chapter provides an overview of the ways governmental bodies regulate equal employment opportunity and workplace safety and health. It introduces 15 major laws affecting employers in these areas as well as the agencies charged with enforcing those laws. The chapter discusses ways organizations can develop practices that ensure they are in compliance with the laws. This chapter will provide guidance on avoiding certain illegal or inadvisable practices. It introduces ways to think more creatively and constructively about fair employment and workplace safety. Assigned Reading/ Exercises Case Study and Videos Discuss Review Questions. Questions Nos. 1 and 2 (Noe, et al. , 2014, p. 85) TOPIC 4 Analyzing Work and Designing Jobs Objectives Case Study, See Topic 03 Video – Working through a Medical Crisis 1. Summarize the elements of work flow analysis. 2. Describe how work flow is related to an organization’s success. 3. Define the elements of a job analysis and discuss their significance for human resource management. 4. Tell how to obtain information for a job analysis. 5. Summarize recent trends in job analysis. 6. Describe methods for designing a job so that it can be done efficiently. 7. Identify approaches to designing a job to make it motivating. 8. Explain how organizations apply ergonomics to design safe jobs. Synopsis of Topic This chapter discusses the analysis and design of work and, in doing so, lays out some considerations that go into making informed decisions about how to create and link jobs. The chapter begins with a look at the big-picture issues related to analyzing work flow and organizational structure. The discussion then turns to the more specific issues of analyzing and designing jobs. Traditionally, job analysis has emphasized the study of existing jobs in order to make decisions such as employee selection, training, and compensation. In contrast, job design has emphasized making jobs more efficient or more motivating. However, as this chapter shows, the two activities are interrelated. Assigned Reading/ Exercises Case Study and Videos Discuss Review Questions. Questions Nos. 1, 4 and 5 (Noe, et al. , 2014, p. 113) Case Study, See Topic 04 Video – Working smart 16 TOPIC 5 Objectives Planning for and Recruiting Human Resources 1. Discuss how to plan for human resources needed to carry out the organization’s strategy. 2. Determine the labour demand for workers in various job categories. 3. Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of ways to eliminate a labour surplus and avoid a labour shortage. 4. Describe recruitment policies organizations use to make job vacancies more attractive. 5. List and compare sources of job applicants. 6. Describe the recruiter’s role in the recruitment process, including limits and opportunities Synopsis of Topic This chapter explores how organizations carry out human resource planning. At the beginning, the chapter identifies the steps that go into developing and implementing a human resource plan. Each subsequent section of the chapter has a focus on recent trends and practices, such as downsizing and outsourcing, which are prevalent to human resource management. Throughout the remaining sections, an exploration into the recruiting process will be undertaken. At the end of the chapter, a discussion will be presented on the role of human resource recruiters. Assigned Reading/ Exercises Case Study and Videos Discuss Review Questions. Questions Nos. 3, 4 and 5 (Noe, et al. , 2014, p. 145) TOPIC 6 Selecting Employees and Placing Them in Jobs Objectives Case Study, See Topic 05 Video – Balancing Act: Keeping Mothers on a Career Track 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Identify the elements of the selection process. Define ways to measure the success of a selection method. Summarize the government’s requirements for employee selection. Compare the common methods used for selecting human resources. Describe major types of employment tests. Discuss how to conduct effective interviews. Explain how employers carry out the process of making a selection decision Synopsis of Topic This chapter explores ways to minimize errors in employee selection and placement. It starts by describing the selection process and how to evaluate possible methods for carrying out that process. The chapter then takes an indepth look at the most widely used methods such as applications and resumes, employment tests and interviews. The chapter ends by describing the process by which organizations arrive at a final selection decision Assigned Discuss Review Questions. Questions Nos. 2 and 3 (Noe, et al. , 2014, p. 174) 17 Reading/ Exercises Case Study and Videos TOPIC 7 Objectives Case Study, See Topic 06 Video – Using Interviews to Recruit the Right People Training Employees 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Discuss how to link training programs to organizational needs. Explain how to assess the need for training. Explain how to assess employees’ readiness for training. Describe how to plan an effective training program. Compare widely used training methods. Summarize how to implement a successful training program. Evaluate the success of a training program. Describe training methods for employee orientation and diversity management. Synopsis of Topic This chapter describes how to plan and carry out an effective training program. It begins with a discussion on how to develop effective training in the context of the organization’s strategy. Next, the chapter discusses how organizations assess employees’ training needs. It then reviews training methods and the process of evaluating a training program. The chapter concludes by discussing some special applications of training orientation of new employees and the management of diversity Assigned Reading/ Exercises Case Study and Videos Discuss Review Questions. Questions Nos. 2 and 3 (Noe, et al. , 2014, p. 207) TOPIC 8 Managing Employees’ Performance Objectives Case Study, See Topic 07 Video – Johnson Johnson eUniversity 1. Identify the activities involved in performance management. 2. Discuss the purposes of performance management systems. 3. Define five criteria for measuring the effectiveness of a performance management system. 4. Compare the major methods for measuring performance. 5. Describe major sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. 6. Define types of rating errors and explain how to minimize them. 7. Explain how to provide performance feedback effectively. 8. Summarize ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. 9. Discuss legal and ethical issues that affect performance management Synopsis of Topic 18 This chapter examines a variety of approaches to performance management. It begins by describing the activities involved in managing performance and then discusses the purpose of carrying out this process. Next, the chapter identifies specific approaches to performance management, including the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. It also looks at various sources of performance information. The next section of the chapter explores the kinds of errors that commonly occur during the assessment of performance as well as ways to reduce those errors. Then, the chapter describes ways of giving performance feedback effectively and intervening when performance must improve. Finally, it summarizes legal and ethical issues affecting performance management. Assigned Reading/ Exercises Case Study and Videos Discuss Review Questions. Questions No. 4 (Noe, et al. , 2014, p. 241) TOPIC 9 Developing Employees for Future Success Objectives Case Study, See Topic 08 Video – Now Who’s Boss 1. Discuss how development is related to training and careers. 2. Identify the methods organizations use for employee development. 3. Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviours, and job performance to plan employee development. 4. Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills. 5. Summarize principles for setting up successful mentoring programs. 6. Tell how managers and peers develop employees through coaching. 7. Identify the steps in the process of career management. 8. Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenge of the â€Å"glass ceiling,† succession planning, and dysfunctional managers. Synopsis of Topic This chapter explores the purpose and activities of employee development. The chapter begins by discussing the relationships among development, training, and career management. Next, it looks at development approaches, including formal education, assessment, job experiences, and interpersonal relationships. The chapter emphasizes the types of skills, knowledge, and behaviours that are strengthened by each development method, so employees and their managers can choose appropriate methods when planning development. The third section of the chapter describes the steps of the career management process, emphasizing the responsibilities of employee and employer at each step of the process. The chapter concludes with a discussion of special challenges related to employee development – the so-called glass ceiling, succession planning, and dysfunctional managers. Assigned Discuss Review Questions. Questions No. 3 (Noe, et al. , 2014, p. 273) 19

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