Wednesday, June 24, 2020

SAT Cancelled

The last version of the SAT being held today has been cancelled at many places. While the cancellations in the United States owe it to the wintry weather, other cancellations in China and Macau have been due to more serious charges of cheating. List Of Centres While the College Board hasn’t specified the number of affected test centres in China and Macau, it is clear that some test takers had access to the testing material before the exam. The Board has not yet released details of a makeup test. Many centres in the US have been cancelled owing to the winter season and snowstorms. The College Board has released a list of centres where the SAT has been postponed. In many centres, the makeup exam is scheduled on February 20. However, the makeup exam for a few centres is yet to be determined. Students can keep track of the College Board website if they are taking the test in one of the affected areas. This is not the first time that the SAT has been plagued by cheating scandals. Back in 2013, the exam was cancelled in South Korea due to similar concerns. You may also be interested in: Old SAT dies today.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Olympian Gods of Greek Mythology - 1012 Words

Greek mythology is the myths and legends the ancient Greeks centred their lives around. The ancient Greeks used it to explain the events and components of the world around them. Their religion included gods and heroes, creation stories, and the origins of their civilisations and rituals. It is topic that had been studied and examined in great depth for thousands of years. This fascinating religions messages and influences are reflected in today’s modern society, and many similarities can be found between Greek mythology and modern religions, such as Christianity. This proposal will outline the research and project I hope to successfully complete. The topic of Greek mythology is too vast to be able to research in the set period of†¦show more content†¦One of the benefits of these flaws present in gods was their accessibility. Unlike other religions, humans in Greek mythology are able to relate to gods very well, because of their similarities in personality. The idea of flawed gods made this religion descend to a very personal level, which is absent in other religions. Humans are able to relate well to the gods, and vice versa. This means that the gods and humans interacted with each other easily and frequently. This sparked a passion within the Greeks, and allowed them to believe that their gods were not unlike them. Contact between the gods and humans was not uncommon, and was often on a very personal level. Sacrifices were made to the gods frequently, as an offering in return for favours, such as a bountiful harvest. They often asked the gods for gifts, advice, and favours. Other ways of interaction included the more personal relationships between gods and humans. The majority of male gods had numerous affairs (a female god having a sexual relation with a mortal was degrading) with many humans, particularly Zeus, which resulted in many demi-gods, who often went on to become heroes of Greek Mythology [e.g. Heracles (Hercules), son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene]. Gods would often come to humans in the forms of animals, and seduce them, impregnate them, and then return to Mount Olympus, where they would sometimes watch over their children. This topic of flawed gods andShow MoreRelatedGreek Gods and Goddess875 Words   |  4 PagesThe Greek Gods: Ancient vs. Modern Views According to ancient Greek mythology the Greek gods and goddesses had at one time lived the savage, brutal and ugly life of humans. Eventually, however, they managed to rise above this ancient fierceness to become the nineteen elder gods and goddesses the Greeks knew as The Titans, who ruled the earth in a primordial era before the Olympian gods overthrew them. The ancient Greeks of the first millennium before the Christian era believedRead MoreComparing Roman And Greek Mythology1354 Words   |  6 Pages Roman Vs. Greek Mythology Roman and Greek mythology are full of complexities. Much of Greek and Roman everyday life revolved around these myths. Many similarities are obvious between Roman and Greek mythology because the Romans borrowed a significant amount of their myths and gods from the Greeks. Although Roman and Greek mythology have a few components in common, they also have many various aspects that cause differences in their cultures. First of all; values, morals, traditionsRead MoreGreek Mythology : A Belief Of Ancient Civilizations Essay902 Words   |  4 PagesGreek Mythology Have you ever wondered why the seasons change? Why there’s thunder? Where the stars come from? The Greeks created their own beliefs to answer their questions. Greek mythology is a belief of ancient civilizations. Greek mythology gives information on the Olympians, Heracles, origin of Greek mythology, and more. They made up stories called myths to explain why things were the way they are. They called these collections of Greek stories, Greek mythology. Greek mythology was the religionRead MoreDid the Ancient Greek Gods Exist?1234 Words   |  5 PagesDid the Ancient Greek Gods exist? The Ancient Greeks regarded their religion and mythology with much respect and loyalty. Although the Ancient Greek Gods are now seen as an explanation created by man, for natural forces and the world around us, there has been much evidence both for and against the debate that these Gods were real. The Greeks believed that the Earth was created with the birth of Gaia, or Mother Earth, from the dark void known as Chaos. It was believed that Gods were all-powerfulRead MoreMajor Greek Gods and Goddesses Essay1153 Words   |  5 PagesUnlike religious gods today, the Greek gods resembled human being in their form and their emotions, and suffered from the same dilemmas humans throughout time have faced. The Greeks believe in many gods and think they are very much like people. They have both supernatural powers and human weaknesses. The gods would fight, play on each other, gets angry or jealous, and steal from each other. The Olympian Gods live atop Mt. Olympus in Greece behind a gate of clouds. They watch the mortals downRead MoreGreek Mythology : Ancient Mythology1630 Words   |  7 PagesGreek mythology denotes to the myths of the early Greeks, Greece gods, and mythical creatures. While pertaining to these legends and myths includes; to their Gods, the nature and heroes, tales of clashes, and of their adventures. It is also a brief on the origin and connotation of their cult, and the innumerable practices that remained shadowed by them. Myth is defined as; a traditional, typically historic story pertaining to mystic beings, descendants, or heroes that serve an essential kind in theRead MoreInfluences of Greek and Roman Mythology863 Words   |  4 PagesInfluences of Greek and Roman Mythology There are many influences that the Greek and Roman’s belief in polytheism that affect today’s cultures and beliefs. Their beliefs are so ancient that they date back to the Roman Empire. Many historians find it astounding that these myths made it through time and their influence is still found in many places of belief. The Greeks had their own principle divinities, these were twelve major gods called, â€Å"The Olympians.† The OlympiansRead MoreAncient Greece : An Important Greek God1709 Words   |  7 PagesAn Important Greek God In ancient Greek religion, there is not one God but numerous. The main Gods and Goddesses are known as the twelve Olympians who were led by Zeus. These Gods and Goddesses came into power after they overthrew the elder gods, the Titans. The twelve Olympians names were: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Athena, Artemis, Apollo, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Ares, and Hermes. These were the main gods that the ancient Greeks would worship and build temples for. These Gods and GoddessesRead MoreGreek Mythology Essay1006 Words   |  5 Pagesbeliefs. Greek mythology is the arguably the most popular region of study. In Ancient Greece every citizen had a patron that would protect them and pantheism was commonplace. The Romans admired the Greeks in their art and culture and even took different aspects of their gods. Polytheism was widely accepted in all cultures so the seed of mythology bloomed. The time line of the creations of gods to the end of their reign is an important factor in Greek Myth ology. Creation The creation of the gods startsRead MoreGreek And Roman Mythology881 Words   |  4 PagesGreek and Roman Mythology Since the dawn of time, different societies have worshiped gods, believing in their power and being afraid of their fury. People have prayed and made sacrifices in order to achieve the gods mercy and generosity. They believed that, if the gods are in good mood, they will provide people with good weather conditions for growing crops. People needed explanations for different natural phenomena, such as rain, drought, lightning, thunder and earthquake. So, ancient people believed

Monday, May 18, 2020

Examination Hall

When there are only a couple of minutes before the examination begins, the students gather right before the hall, where the tests are going to take place. Some students come in their cars, while the others prefer bicycles. Some college attendants put on their finest outfits while the rest of them gives preference to the casual clothes. What is the Happy Gathering? Boys and girls are standing here and there in small groups. They never stop talking to each other. At some point they feel sad when it’s time for the examination hall to open and they get inside. They keep their eyes on the clock to know when the significant time comes. Their mothers, fathers and other relatives are there to support them and tell them about how to fare well in the process. The friends, who are also there and who have once been through it, instruct them in detail about the examination. They share their experiences and give hot tips. What’s Going on in the Candidate’s Mind? Every thought that pops up in the mind of a student is related only to the examination. They form themselves into many groups seen everywhere – on the benches, in the garden or in the green ground. They all suggest possible questions and immediately give various answers. As soon as a clever boy appears on their way, they catch him up and ask every question possible. Being Care Free Is a Part of the Process Although the whole group is bathing in fear, there are some individuals who are absolutely fear-less. They take every exam as a game. Making fun of everything is a part of the play. Being care free they tease those who is busy with books and laugh at the students praying for the best. Who Else? If you take a closer look around, you will find out that there are also other persons besides the examinees. They are here just to enjoy what is happening. The hawkers are there to hawk. The shopkeepers simply keep their shops. Nonetheless, none of the stuff grabs student’s attention this time. Here’s When the Examination Starts When there are only several minutes left before the examination, the examination superintendent appears with a peon, who opens the hall. This is the moment, when the students have an opportunity to enter the place. Some of them feel awkward, some behave uneasily. Their heart beat reaches the critical point when they enter the door. With the God’s name on their lips they take their seats. Meanwhile, someone hears the bell ringing and the sound of silence. Everybody is serious as never before. When every seat is occupied, the door of the examination hall is clothed. This is when the examination starts!

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Treaty of Versailles triumph or tragedy - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 622 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/08/16 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Treaty of Versailles Essay Did you like this example? This specifically suggests that the treaty of Versailles and the war guilt clause imposed numerous burdens on Germany and deprived it from ever being able to rise to power. This subsequently led to the development of numerous political parties that promoted national socialism such as the Nazis which ideology of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism. These parties stood against accepting these unfair policies that just benefited the past Allied powers and were in fact imposed without Germanys consent, as this treaty was signed by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French Premier George Clemenceau and US President Woodrow Wilson in the Hall of mirrors (which in fact was the same place where Germany had previously proclaimed its empire). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Treaty of Versailles triumph or tragedy" essay for you Create order All of the mixed feelings that arose from these actions became reasons that directly supported the development of the Nazi party conducted by Adolf Hitler which fed upon this hatred and proclaimed Germans as a supremacist race. Which is why upon Hitlers appointment as Germanys Chancellor in 1933 he began to secretly build Germanys army and weapons. And by 1934 he had increased the overall size of his army by building warships and creating other military branches, such as the German Air Force. Although, it all initiated following the creation of the German Workers Party in 1919 (which promoted German pride and anti-semitism) it was the dissatisfaction over the Treaty of Versailles and Hitlers rise in power (primarily due to his speeches that were directed primarily the young and economically disadvantaged Germans) that paved way to the development of the Nazi Party. Furthermore, upon Hitlers appointment as Chancellor hi autobiography Mein Kampf (which was written during his five years in prison due to the attempt to overthrow Germanys government in 192) this book became a form of bible for the Nazi Party. Primarily, due to Hitlers overall charismatic attitude which was able to convince individuals to join th e cause. As he claimed that Germany needed Lebensraum or living space as he urged germans to join his struggle to reach independence and gain all of the territories that were taken from them. He also appealed to the public by his Four Year Plan which would call for slum clearance, the construction of roads that prevented Germany from communicating and continuing its overall trading relationship with other nations. Furthermore, Adolf Hitler decided to break part of one of the agreements from the Treaty of Versailles as he decided to invade the demilitarized zone of Rhineland in 1936 which Germany was prohibited to introduce any troops into but due to the fact that this was a critical area for the French (as it represented a type of barrier that would protect the French if Germany would become engaged in war again) they did not try to stop Hitler as 30,000 Nazi soldiers invaded this area. Following this event Hitler developed two major alliances between Fascist germany and Italy and between germany and the Japanese empire that would in fact change the course of the situation between Germany and the other nations and would shape the course of WWII as they offered their full support to Germany in times of war. Which directly explains why Hitler began to take almost full control over Europe and forcefully invaded Czechoslovakia in 1939 which subsequently led to a conflict between Germany, Britain a nd France as these began to fear that Hitler would attempt to invade Poland and due to these threatened that if he did they would go to war and as Hitler refused to bring his idea of expansion and revenge to a close and invaded Poland on September 1st, 1939 this event was considered as the last straw as it marked the beginning to horrendous events such as the inhalation of Jews (in the Holocaust) and WWII. Treaty of Versailles Triumph or Tragedy - Free Essay Example Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 455 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/08/16 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Treaty of Versailles Essay Did you like this example? Furthermore, a significant reason for why the Treaty of Versailles must be considered as a tragedy is due to the fact that it led to the overall crash of the German economy which was in fact aggravated by the Great Depression. Which led to a worldwide disintegration of the economy of powerful nations as it led to famine, poverty and disasters. This is supported by the fact that the Treaty of versailles imposed a detrimental effect on germanys economy as it inhibited Germanys ability to engage in overseas commerce, to transport goods, and to possess an access to its major supply of resources that were fundamental to its economy such as iron and coal.. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Treaty of Versailles Triumph or Tragedy" essay for you Create order This was demonstrated as according to the treaty of versailles Germany had to give up on its territory of Alsace Lorraine to France, which unfortunately contains about 75% of germanys supply of iron-ore, this was tremendously tragic to germany as since it was considered as one of the most powerful industrialized nations most of its income was based o the trading of these essential resources and since not only Germany was forced to give up most of its oil supplying territories but also provide an absurd amount of coal to Belgium, France and Italy as a way to pay for their reparations. Unfortunately, to Germanys unfortunate Germany was heavily dependent on coal for its energy needs as it provides the electricity needed to manufacture products in the factories which is why these were unable to maintain its major source of income stability which led to chaos as it led to the hyperinflation of Germanys economy as it over evaluated essential products such as food, water and etc which subse quently led to malnutrition and poverty as individuals were unable to absurd prices for things such as bread. And due to germanys inability to manufacture products this directly led to an increase of unemployment as factory workers were not needed as almost no products were produced, and even the salary of those that were employed was reduced by about 10% to 12%. Ultimately, the Treaty of Versailles even affected the U.S economy as well as the U.S senate refused to ratify the treaty and rejected to support its overall membership in the League of Nations. And in 1922 the Congress eventually passed a tariff that closed Americas market to foreign merchants or vendors which directly led to the Great Depression that affected all nations around the world specially Germany, as its economy was disintegrated which caused its citizens to possess a feeling of hatred and indignation which led to the disintegration of the countrys sense of patriotism as a whole and led to boycotts and numerous rebellions that brought disaster to an already shattered nation.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Gilded Age - 1035 Words

Question 2 From the end of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century many economic changes occurred, from booms to busts, but all effected minorities less favorably. At the end of the nineteenth century began an era of industrialization that created an economic upturn called the gilded age. Hallmarks of this age were technological advances, banking innovations, and wealth concentrations. Railroad construction, advances in steel production, and electrical innovation drove industrial and economic growth. Emerging from this upheaval were a gaggle of industrial big wigs: John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan, and Andrew Carnegie. These three represented an unholy alliance with government and big business that left smaller†¦show more content†¦Ford Motor company not only revolutionized production with the assembly line, but also paid its workers well enough that they could afford to buy its cars too. This boom in car ownership encouraged other industries to grow as well, sectors such as road and bridge construction, glass and leather manufacturing, and naturally, oil production expanded also. Advertising built brand identification and created a consumer culture that equated patriotism, and piety with consumerism. For the first time, companies like Coca Cola, and General Electric sold hope and lifestyle, encouraging the creation of a consumer culture. Unfortunately this roaring twenties boom economy lead many to lean too heavily on credit, leading to an inevitable down cycle called the Great Depression. Structural defects in the US economy, such as banking sector instability, wage stagnation, agricultural overproduction, and over reliance on credit, were the main causes of the Great Depression. Newly elected Herbert Hoover and his administration floundered as unemployment and hunger raged out of control. So many lost their homes that card board shanties called Hoovervilles sprung up in all major cities. American s disillusionment with governmental ineffectiveness during Hoover s administration allowed the Democratic Party to elect the first democratic president since Woodrow Wilson(1921). Franklin Delano Roosevelt(FDR) swept into power ready toShow MoreRelatedInventions In The Gilded Age1140 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Immigration and African American Rights, I think these are the main events that happen during the Gilded Age. The Gilded Age was an eventful time, had lots of things going on from left and right of us. Mark Twain called the 19th century the Gilded Age, by this he meant that the period was glittering on the surface, but corrupt underneath. There were only two different classes, either you were rich or poor. There was no in between because either you ran a successful business and had familyRead MoreThe Gilded Age Still Effect American Life Today1370 Words   |  6 PagesThe Gilded Age, also known as American urbanization, led to many employment opportunities, advances in transportation and sanitation, which improved overall standard of living. All advancements that took place in The Gilded Age still effect American life today. The rapid development of the cities in the 19th century served as both a separation and togetherness factor in American political, economic and social life. Cit ies in the area created a wealthy cross-section of the world’s population, makingRead MoreEssay about The Italian Immigrants of Post-1880713 Words   |  3 Pagesunsanitary living conditions and they do not learn the English language. Riis aims to expose the slums as a measure of civilization, and note that America as a nation is only as strong as its weakest link. Riis believed that the padrone is really a disadvantage for fellow immigrants for the padroni takes ten percent of their profits. Also he remarked that in comparison, the Germans would never live in filth like the Italians did. However, Riis has a change of heart as he says, â€Å"With all his conspicuousRead MoreAfrican Americans And The American Dream1793 Words   |  8 PagesEven though the optimal American Dream doesn’t promise that all citizens will achieve personal success, it offers equality and fortunes for them to pursue dreams through hard work. However, during the Industrial Age, the American D ream didn’t apply to the lower class. Most immigrants from southern and eastern Europe arrived in the United States to escape religious persecution and poverty in their home countries and also seek new opportunities. But, they realized the brutal reality after their arrivalRead MoreNeoliberalism : A New Economic System1169 Words   |  5 PagesMajor neoliberal policies comprised of World Trade Organization, North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank, and International Monetary Fund. Like any other ideologies, neoliberal policies have advantages and disadvantages because they can’t satisfy all social groups. Restricted government intervention allows elites and entrepreneurs to pursue economic freedom, but it also means limited welfare programs for the working class. Free market triggers economicRead MoreIntroduction. In â€Å"The Man With The Muck-Rake,† Theodore1327 Words   |  6 Pagesin progressive era America i n order to shed light on the necessity of a proper and honest society. Historical Background In the late nineteenth century, America was a country in its prime of industrialization and immigration influx. Known as the Gilded Age, this period defined the United States as the bustling powerhouse it is today, but at the cost of many social and political injustices that lay underneath the guise of the â€Å"American dream†. Among the urbanization and booming industry, there wasRead MoreThe Best And Worst Of The American Industrial Revolution1309 Words   |  6 Pagesto afford it (DiBacco 127). thesis Despite the many benefits contributing to the American Industrial Revolution that would perceive it to be a â€Å"great time† in history, there were also downfalls and hardships. Slavery took part in factoring as a disadvantage in northern artisanal labor and the southern states. The United States had not become a slave society until the need for labor in southern plantations became an economic essential. Laws developed to be harsher as legal and cultural separation wereRead More Industrialization and Immigration Essay2267 Words   |  10 Pagessuccess of their companies resided in the availability of a working class. Immigrants to the United States, willing to do anything to set a foothold in the nation, accepted cheap labor as employment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Large corporations used this to their advantage. Profit oriented leaders did little to make suitable working conditions. With the aid of Muckrakers, journalists who exposed the underside of American life, the nation began to understand the evils of industrialization (599). More and more didRead MoreAmerican History : The World s Richest Woman The Witch Of Wall Street 2033 Words   |  9 Pagesher death that belittled the 80 million dollar estate of J.P. Morgan (Columbia), has been expunged from historical records, instead leaving behind an monotonous transcript of male exceptionalism and supposed â€Å"industrial statesmen[ship]† during the Gilded Age (â€Å"Robber Barons†).Women’s perceived identities throughout time have been vastly malleable, with opponents of gender equality resorting to the belittlement of females intellect in order to regain power; women have been forced to utilize these generalizationsRead MorePaper2439 Words   |  10 Pages Persuasive Paper Part 3: Possible Disadvantages, Answers, with Visuals Rodney Howard Professor: Holly Sprinkle English Research and Writing September, 1st, 2015 Introduction There is a problem that exists with hung juries. It should be suggested that a supermajority be required to convict, and a mere majority be required to acquit. These reforms would effectively abolish the hung jury. We need to stop giving holdouts the power to prevent convictions and I feel that all jurors should not have to

Nursing Ethics Free Essays

Caring has long been claimed as a concept at the heart of nursing, sometimes described as the thing that distinguishes nursing from other professions. Care is increasingly recognized as the moral foundation, ideal and imperative of nursing. What counts as caring at any particular historical moment is highly dependent on context; meanings of care are historically contingent and change over time. We will write a custom essay sample on Nursing Ethics or any similar topic only for you Order Now Caring is not just a subjective and material experience but one in which particular historical circumstances, ideologies and power relations create the conditions under which caring can occur, the forms it takes and the consequences it will have for those who undertake it. Ethical selves are shaped by social discourses that situate care in relation to broader formations of gender, religion, class and ethnicity as well as factors such as age, nationality and physical location. Since 1900 no decade has passed without publication of at least one basic text in nursing ethics with one of the first discrete texts on nursing ethics being published as early as 1888 (Orr   2004). Since the inception of modern nursing in the last century, nurses globally have taken seriously their moral responsibilities as health care practitioners; they have also taken seriously the issues which have emerged as a consequence of their attempts to fulfill these responsibilities effectively. As professionals working in the health care domain, very clear that nurses like other health care professionals cannot escape the tensions that are being caused by the radically opposing and competing moral viewpoints that are presently pulling the health care arena and indeed the world apart. An important question to arise here is: how can the nursing profession best respond to this predicament? There is, of course, no simple final answer to this question. Nevertheless there is at least one crucial point that needs to be made, and it is this: it is vitally important that nurses learn to recognize the cyclical processes of social and cultural change, and realize that they themselves are participants in this change. Once realizing this, they also need to learn that, as participants in these cyclical transformations, they are positioned and have a stringent moral responsibility to sensitively and artfully advocate for the mediation of the extreme and multiple positions they might (and very often do) find themselves caught between. They also have a moral responsibility to facilitate this mediation by acting as mediators themselves. Nursing ethics can be defined broadly as the examination of all kinds of ethical and bioethical issues from the perspective of nursing theory and practice which, in turn, rest on the agreed core concepts of nursing, namely: person, culture, care, health, healing, environment, and nursing itself (Narvà ¡ez Rest 1994). In this regard, then, contrary to popular belief, nursing ethics is not synonymous with (and indeed is much greater than) an ethic of care, although an ethic of care has an important place in the overall moral scheme of nursing. Nursing, like other health professionals, encounter many moral problems in the course of their everyday professional practice. These problems range from the relatively simple to the extraordinarily complex, and can cause varying degrees of perplexity and distress in those who encounter them. For instance, some moral problems are relatively easy to resolve and may cause little if any distress to those involved; other problems, however, may be extremely difficult or even impossible to resolve, and may cause a great deal of moral stress and distress for those encountering them. In making an interpretation of the particular situation in which there is a moral problem, persons who have empathy and can take the perspective of others, and who care for others – even people who are quite different from themselves – are likely to exhibit high levels of moral sensitivity. A person must be able to reason about a situation and make a judgment about which course of action is morally right, thus labeling one possible line of action as what ought morally to be done in that situation (Narvà ¡ez Rest 1994). Both a strong desire to do what is most morally defensible and a strong caring for other humans is necessary in order for a professional person to put aside a possible action that would serve self-interest in favor of the most ethical alternative action. Nurses have as much independent moral responsibility for their actions (and omissions) as they have independent legal responsibility, and are just as accountable for their practice morally as they are legally. Nurses must be accorded the recognition and legitimated authority necessary to enable them to fulfill their many and complex responsibilities as professionals bound by agreed standards of care. It can be seen that the prospects of virtue ethics are indeed promising in nursing ethics. The agreed ethical standards of nursing require nurses to promote the genuine welfare and wellbeing of people in need of help through nursing care, and to do so in a manner that is safe, competent, therapeutically effective, culturally relevant, and just. These standards also recognize that in the ultimate analysis nurses can never escape the reality that they literally hold human wellbeing in their, and accordingly must act responsively and responsibly to protect it (Bioethics for beginners). These requirements are demonstrably consistent with a virtue theory account of ethics. The nursing profession worldwide has a rich and distinctive history of identifying and responding substantively to ethical issues in nursing and health care domains. In today’s highly technical health-care system, there seems to be general agreement that nurses must be rational, logical thinkers who can incorporate the tradition of justice that draws on long-established modes of moral reasoning. Nursing should be a relationship in which compassion, competence, confidence, justice, prudence, temperance, caring, honesty, responsibility and commitment are mobilized by the care-giver to promote the health and well-being of those in need of care. The neglect or overemphasis of any one of these would cause for an imbalance in care. Hospital conditions are not those of ordinary life. Nursing deals with the unusual and the abnormal. Within the walls of the hospital nurses find that they must accept all people as they are, and devote themselves mainly to their physical betterment. However, an integrative theory of nursing ethics that synthesizes caring and justice has yet to be developed. Tensions in nursing among loyalty to patients, to physicians, to self, and to employing agencies provide a context for the development of ethics in nursing over the past century and nursing’s participation in health care reform today. Bibliography â€Å"Bioethics for beginners.† Available from: dttp://www.med.upenn.edu/~bioethic Botes, A. (2000). A comparison between the ethics of justice and the ethics of care.   Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 1021. Chin, P. L. (2001). Nursing and ethics: The maturing of the discipline. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(2), 63-64. Edwards, N. (1999). Nursing ethics: How did we get here, and what are we doing about it? Surgical Services Management, 5(1), 20-22. Botes, A. (2000). A comparison between the ethics of justice and the ethics of care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35, 1071. Elder, R., Price, J., Williams, G. (2003). Differences in ethical attitudes between registered nurses and medical students. Nursing Ethics, 10, 149-164. Gatzke, H., Ransom, J. E. (2001). New skills for the new age: Preparing nurses for the 21st century. Nursing Forum, 36(3), 13-17. Narvà ¡ez, D. and Rest, J. (1994). Moral Development in the Professions: Psychology and Applied Ethics. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ. Orr, Robert D. (2004). â€Å"Ethics Life’s Ending: An Exchange.† First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life, 145. Peter, E., Morgan, K. P. (2000). Exploration of a trust approach for nursing ethics. Nursing Inquiry, 8(3), How to cite Nursing Ethics, Essay examples Nursing Ethics Free Essays Nursing Ethics Caring has long been claimed as a concept at the heart of nursing, sometimes described as the thing that distinguishes nursing from other professions. Care is increasingly recognized as the moral foundation, ideal and imperative of nursing. What counts as caring at any particular historical moment is highly dependent on context; meanings of care are historically contingent and change over time. We will write a custom essay sample on Nursing Ethics or any similar topic only for you Order Now Caring is not just a subjective and material experience but one in which particular historical circumstances, ideologies and power relations create the conditions under which caring can occur, the forms it takes and the consequences it will have for those who undertake it. Ethical selves are shaped by social discourses that situate care in relation to broader formations of gender, religion, class and ethnicity as well as factors such as age, nationality and physical location. Since 1900 no decade has passed without publication of at least one basic text in nursing ethics with one of the first discrete texts on nursing ethics being published as early as 1888 (Orr   2004). Since the inception of modern nursing in the last century, nurses globally have taken seriously their moral responsibilities as health care practitioners; they have also taken seriously the issues which have emerged as a consequence of their attempts to fulfill these responsibilities effectively. As professionals working in the health care domain, very clear that nurses like other health care professionals cannot escape the tensions that are being caused by the radically opposing and competing moral viewpoints that are presently pulling the health care arena and indeed the world apart. An important question to arise here is: how can the nursing profession best respond to this predicament? There is, of course, no simple final answer to this question. Nevertheless there is at least one crucial point that needs to be made, and it is this: it is vitally important that nurses learn to recognize the cyclical processes of social and cultural change, and realize that they themselves are participants in this change. Once realizing this, they also need to learn that, as participants in these cyclical transformations, they are positioned and have a stringent moral responsibility to sensitively and artfully advocate for the mediation of the extreme and multiple positions they might (and very often do) find themselves caught between. They also have a moral responsibility to facilitate this mediation by acting as mediators themselves. Nursing ethics can be defined broadly as the examination of all kinds of ethical and bioethical issues from the perspective of nursing theory and practice which, in turn, rest on the agreed core concepts of nursing, namely: person, culture, care, health, healing, environment, and nursing itself (Narvà ¡ez Rest 1994). In this regard, then, contrary to popular belief, nursing ethics is not synonymous with (and indeed is much greater than) an ethic of care, although an ethic of care has an important place in the overall moral scheme of nursing. Nursing, like other health professionals, encounter many moral problems in the course of their everyday professional practice. These problems range from the relatively simple to the extraordinarily complex, and can cause varying degrees of perplexity and distress in those who encounter them. For instance, some moral problems are relatively easy to resolve and may cause little if any distress to those involved; other problems, however, may be extremely difficult or even impossible to resolve, and may cause a great deal of moral stress and distress for those encountering them. In making an interpretation of the particular situation in which there is a moral problem, persons who have empathy and can take the perspective of others, and who care for others – even people who are quite different from themselves – are likely to exhibit high levels of moral sensitivity. A person must be able to reason about a situation and make a judgment about which course of action is morally right, thus labeling one possible line of action as what ought morally to be done in that situation (Narvà ¡ez Rest 1994). Both a strong desire to do what is most morally defensible and a strong caring for other humans is necessary in order for a professional person to put aside a possible action that would serve self-interest in favor of the most ethical alternative action. Nurses have as much independent moral responsibility for their actions (and omissions) as they have independent legal responsibility, and are just as accountable for their practice morally as they are legally. Nurses must be accorded the recognition and legitimated authority necessary to enable them to fulfill their many and complex responsibilities as professionals bound by agreed standards of care. It can be seen that the prospects of virtue ethics are indeed promising in nursing ethics. The agreed ethical standards of nursing require nurses to promote the genuine welfare and wellbeing of people in need of help through nursing care, and to do so in a manner that is safe, competent, therapeutically effective, culturally relevant, and just. These standards also recognize that in the ultimate analysis nurses can never escape the reality that they literally hold human wellbeing in their, and accordingly must act responsively and responsibly to protect it (Bioethics for beginners). These requirements are demonstrably consistent with a virtue theory account of ethics. The nursing profession worldwide has a rich and distinctive history of identifying and responding substantively to ethical issues in nursing and health care domains. In today’s highly technical health-care system, there seems to be general agreement that nurses must be rational, logical thinkers who can incorporate the tradition of justice that draws on long-established modes of moral reasoning. Nursing should be a relationship in which compassion, competence, confidence, justice, prudence, temperance, caring, honesty, responsibility and commitment are mobilized by the care-giver to promote the health and well-being of those in need of care. The neglect or overemphasis of any one of these would cause for an imbalance in care. Hospital conditions are not those of ordinary life. Nursing deals with the unusual and the abnormal. Within the walls of the hospital nurses find that they must accept all people as they are, and devote themselves mainly to their physical betterment. However, an integrative theory of nursing ethics that synthesizes caring and justice has yet to be developed. Tensions in nursing among loyalty to patients, to physicians, to self, and to employing agencies provide a context for the development of ethics in nursing over the past century and nursing’s participation in health care reform today. Bibliography Botes, A. (2000). A comparison between the ethics of justice and the ethics of care.   Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 1021. Chin, P. L. (2001). Nursing and ethics: The maturing of the discipline. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(2), 63-64. Edwards, N. (1999). Nursing ethics: How did we get here, and what are we doing about it? Surgical Services Management, 5(1), 20-22. Botes, A. (2000). A comparison between the ethics of justice and the ethics of care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35, 1071. Elder, R., Price, J., Williams, G. (2003). Differences in ethical attitudes between registered nurses and medical students. Nursing Ethics, 10, 149-164. Gatzke, H., Ransom, J. E. (2001). New skills for the new age: Preparing nurses for the 21st century. Nursing Forum, 36(3), 13-17. Narvà ¡ez, D. and Rest, J. (1994). Moral Development in the Professions: Psychology and Applied Ethics. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ. Orr, Robert D. (2004). â€Å"Ethics Life’s Ending: An Exchange.† First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life, 145. Peter, E., Morgan, K. P. (2000). Exploration of a trust approach for nursing ethics. Nursing Inquiry, 8(3),  10. How to cite Nursing Ethics, Essay examples Nursing ethics Free Essays The ethical concerns that I have related to this dilemma are many. What is the doctor’s responsibility to try to stop the mother’s contractions? What are the limits of the attempts that should be made to save the child?   Should the mother be allowed to risk her own life to attempt to save the life of a child that is probably not viable outside the womb? Should the doctor plan a cesarean section despite the fact that the infant will probably die as soon as it is removed from the mother’s womb?   I can’t imagine making this decision personally, but many mothers are forced to make it every day. Here is the situation that lead to my ethical quandary. We will write a custom essay sample on Nursing ethics or any similar topic only for you Order Now I have a patient who is 3 week ante partum and has had premature rupture of membranes. This condition could cause hemorrhaging for her and death of the infant in uterus. In layman’s terms, both she and the infant are at risk of death. She is starting to contract and the physician will not do anything since the fetus is not considered viable. The physician has described the issues of having a vaginal birth versus a cesarean section with this patient because the fetus is breech. The patient wants everything to be done to save this baby. As described above, the issues are exceedingly complex. The physician appears to have determined that the child is a lost cause and is thinking only of the health of the mother, but this is contrary to her wishes. Should the mother’s desire to save her child be allowed to override her own survival instincts? And, what role, if any, should the child’s father have in decision-making process? My literature survey for this situation was amazingly frustrating. I expected there to be a great deal of study materials available regarding this topic. It is, in essence, the quintessential ethical debate: do you save the life of the mother or the life of the child?   And, there is the question of the doctor’s ethics. Should he be able to determine the best medical course of action if it is contrary to the mother’s wishes? And, who determines when a fetus is viable? Can we allow it to be based on an arbitrary date? I found a lot of older research regarding the ethics of abortion and approaching the discussion of fetal viability from that point of view, but there was nothing recent and nothing than dealt with miscarriages as opposed to abortion. And, there was nothing that talked about the discussion of the life of the mother versus the life of the child. I think this would clearly be a great place for additional study. I think specifically the ethical question of whether medical decisions should be made contrary to the patient’s wishes should also be considered. Right now, as a society, we allow a person to make their own decisions about their health care even though we do not allow them to determine when or how they die. What I did find were several articles regarding the mental trauma that miscarriage and stillbirth inflict on the mother and an interesting article promoting the development of advanced directives regarding pregnancy health care. Of all the articles, this is the one that I found most interesting and directly applicable to the situation at hand. In this article, Anita Caitlin proposes that obstetricians think outside the box and promote the development of advanced directives for prenatal and delivery care.   The proposal is simple, just as a person can create a living will for care during a terminal illness or traumatic injury, a pregnant woman would in her early weeks of pregnancy discuss in depth with her doctor the potential things that could go wrong and develop a plan of action.   For instance, a woman would decide at the very beginning of the pregnancy what circumstances would lead to her decision for a cesarean section (Caitlin, 2005). This would eliminate the need to make the decision during a high stress time, since we can assume that such decision would cause stress, and at a time that the mother’s mental and emotional state is impacted by the high levels of hormones associated with pregnancy. I understand that being able to hold a woman to the advanced directives would be impossible, but a woman could elect to rely on the already issued directive and not add the trauma of making a decision to an already stressful time. This would also allow the person to discuss the eventualities with those whom she believes have a right to have a say in her life instead of just those that the laws say have a right to assist with her decision-making (next of kin, when the patient is incapacitated). Another article that drew my attention that I found in my literature review was a discussion about the ethical concerns some doctors have about making medical recommendations that are contrary to their own moral and ethical beliefs. â€Å"A growing number of doctors, nurses, and pharmacies are refusing to provide, refer, or even tell their patients about care options that they feel are not in keeping with their own personal religious beliefs,† stated Barbara Kavadias, Director of Field Services at the Religious Coalition and leader of the three-year project that created In Good Conscience. â€Å"Institutions are refusing to provide essential care, citing their religious commitments.† (Bioweek, 2007) This is a growing ethical trend in medical care that I have some major concerns with. Take, for instance, the case of my current patient. If she were (or is) being treated by a doctor who believes all life is sacred, he might be willing to risk the life of the mother in an effort to try to save the child. In this case, it is difficult to determine how a person with these moral concerns might treat the patient. Taking the child via c-section is probably the best for option to preserve the mother’s life. It may result in the immediate death of the fetus. Waiting and trying to abate the mother’s contractions may provide the child with a greater chance of survival, but also puts extra risk on the mother’s life. At that point, what are the criteria used by those with this moral outlook to determine the proper course of action? These questions are likely to grow in controversy as technology increases and the fetus is increasingly viable outside of the womb. The more that society becomes able to keep a child alive without the benefit of the mother, the more questions regarding the ethics of doing so or not doing so will grow in prominence. It is absolutely possible that with increasing medical technology and the ability to prolong life we will have additional debates regarding who gets to determine what lives are worth saving and what lives are lost. I believe that a trend toward making informed decisions is a good one and a move in the right direction, taking people away from having to make a decision in a crisis situation. I also think that it is worthwhile to discuss the role of the father in the decision-making process. Because of the trend toward increasing women’s rights and in an effort to prevent a return to the days of the complete male dominance, society appears to be moving away from the rights of a souse to have a say in decisions that affect them. For example, the birth of a child is an 18-year (minimum) commitment for men as well and in an effort to secure the rights of women, we have completely removed the father from the decision-making process. As a human, I believe that ultimate control of a person’s body should be his or her own, but it is also reasonable to believe that a spouse (or life partner) should have some say in the decision. In the case of m patient, I cannot believe that a loving partner would encourage her to risk her own life for the tiny chance to save a child which would already have been lost if not for technology. Works Cited Caitlin, Anita. â€Å"Thinking Outside the Box: Prenatal Care and the Call for a Prenatal Advance Directive†Journal of Perinatal Neonatal Nursing. Frederick: Apr-Jun 2005. Vol. 19, Iss. 2; pg. 169. Geller, Pamela A. â€Å"Understanding distress in the aftermath of miscarriage† Network News. Washington: Sep/Oct 2002. Vol. 27, Iss. 5; pg. 4. Klier, C. M. , P. A. Geller, J. B. Ritsher. â€Å"Affective disorders in the aftermath of miscarriage: A comprehensive review†,Archives of Women’s Mental Health. Wien: Dec 2002. Vol. 5, Iss. 4; p. 129. ‘Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice; Religious Leaders Call for New Efforts to Reverse Growing Imposition of Sectarian Religious Beliefs on Reproductive and End-of-Life Care† Biotech Week. Atlanta: May 9, 2007. pg. 973 How to cite Nursing ethics, Essay examples

Critical Evaluation of Data Interpretation

Question: Discuss about the Critical Evaluation of Data Interpretation. Answer: Introduction: Researchers namely, Fetters, Curry and Creswell (2013) presented few examples through which data interpretation in qualitative research is conducted either through investigating the theory or model application within distinct context or through expecting any model or theory to emerge from the data analysis. Qualitative Research Data Interpretation for the Sampling Design Bcps.org. (2016) revealed that qualitative data interpretation is the search of general statements regarding the relationships among several data categories. These researchers stated that qualitative data interpretation tools include categorization and theme based evaluation. In contrast to that researchers namely, Fetters, Curry and Creswell (2013) indicated that qualitative data interpretation employs ways in which the researcher shifts from an explanation of the case. These researchers also stated that simple qualitative data interpretation is conducted through recurring patterns or themes. Depending on the evaluation of data around theoretical frameworks offers additional insight and such frameworks encompasses distributed cognition, grounded and activity theory. Quantitative Research Data Interpretation for the Sampling Design Bcps.org. (2016) indicated that quantitative data interpretation could serve as an explaining process by selecting sampling design from which numerical data can be collected and through employing mathematically based methods for data interpretation. In contrast, researchers namely Fetters, Curry and Creswell (2013), observed that data interpretation of quantitative data are always numerical and are conducted through statistical and mathematical methods. These researchers also indicated that use of likert scales and similar techniques signifies that the ample design can be analyzed by quantitative techniques. Reference List Bcps.org. 2016. [online] Available at: https://www.bcps.org/offices/Lis/researchcourse/images/Textbook_Chapter_on_Qualitative_Research_Design.pdf [Accessed 9 Dec. 2016]. Fetters, M.D., Curry, L.A. and Creswell, J.W., 2013. Achieving integration in mixed methods designsprinciples and practices.Health services research,48(2), pp.2134-2156.